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Executive level organizational overview b.
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Managerial level departmental function 8. Summarize the data the finished document c. Operational level process and equipment detail a. Outline and tally basic budget issues 2. Observe existing or similar facilities c. Assisted observation manual for space planning b. Unobtrusive observation c. Inventory of existing furniture and equipment when it is to be reused The analytical process described above will never produce a space planning solution. Regardless of how thorough the process may be, creating a phys- 3.
Establish architectural parameters ical solution requires that analysis be put aside and a process of synthesis a.
Acquire complete base plan data including mechanical and electrical begun. Compile contextual data architectural, historical, social be seen in its broadest sense, in which functional, esthetic, and technical c. Research code constraints issues must be addressed and resolved. The heart of the problem-solving task in space planning occurs in making the transition from the analytical pre- 4.
Organize collected data the first-phase program design phase of the project to the creative design solution phase. Place data in sequential format most useful for planning b. If the pre-design plan waiting for inspiration to strike is an utterly impractical approach. A well- process is very thorough, it may bring the planner several steps closer to a established design methodology is needed to meet the typical time pres- physical solution or may make the creative leap a shorter, easier one.
For the sures of the profession and to solve space planning problems in a manner purposes of this text, the void between the completed design program and that fully satisfies the needs of the client and user. A basic principle, fundamental to all design methodologies and helpful to remember when projects loom too large and difficult, is this: Break down problems to their smallest and most manageable elements.
Rather than be confronted by a maze of complex and seemingly unrelated factors, take the problem apart and reassemble it. View the ele- ments as smaller, more controllable components, and then reorganize them in a sequence or in groupings that relate to the space planning problem.
This is all part of the process to narrow the synthesis gap. In addition, most programs are accompanied by adjacency or relationship diagrams that often express physical planning relationships more articulately than verbal descriptions do. While the basic skills required to prepare a program are not unusual or complex, do not expect to be able to prepare a professional-qual- If the pre-design process has been thorough and insightful, the synthesis ity program in the first attempts.
After repeated experience, the skills gap will be narrower and easier to manage: required for interviewing, observation, research, analysis, and documenta- tion become well honed, and one is then prepared to accomplish the real goal of programming — setting the stage for the planning and design process. Interviews When planning projects are small and groups are tightly managed, it may be necessary to interview only one person: a proprietor, manager, or director.
Size and complexity are quite different issues. Even though the project may be small in size, it would From a practical, professional setting viewpoint, the planner needs an effi- be unusual to plan a typical residential renovation without interviewing both cient and reliable process to turn to each time a space planning project is wife and husband, or both partners of a small law firm when planning new encountered. Gathering a few basic facts and then staring at a blank floor office facilities for the firm.
This observation is a skill unto itself. Generally, it is advisable ing furniture and equipment. Inventorying and dimensioning great quantities of to give the set of questions to the interviewees in advance of the interview, existing furniture and equipment is usually a tedious but necessary procedure. Rather than use a recording device, Ideally, the basic architectural constraints and parameters of a given project most experienced planners take interview notes, because recorders can be should be established during the programming phase so that the relation- an intimidating intrusion on the easy rapport desired between programmer ships between client needs and the qualities of physical space can be con- and interviewee.
Except to gather dimensional and other quantitative data, sidered from the outset. Highly detailed information about the physical questionnaires are not in widespread use; personal exchange is necessary setting is not necessary at this early phase of project involvement; too much to get beyond the superficial issues and to uncover the subtleties of space detail might even get in the way at this point.
The basics here are: planning requirements. A great deal of informational and instructional litera- ture exists concerning the acquiring and developing of interview skills valu- 1. A base floor plan s , at a scale large enough to be useful, and accompa- able in approaching the interviewing task from a knowledgeable and nied by enough data about mechanical and electrical services so that professional perspective.
Contextual data concerning the basics of architectural, historical, and Observing existing facilities to see and understand operational and equip- social factors ment-related processes is often an integral part of the interview process. Building and zoning code requirements in enough detail to avoid basic Typically, a manager, senior partner, or department head will take the inter- code violations in general space allocations viewer on a tour of the entire facility, or the portion of the facility for which he or she is responsible.
In many cases, this kind of guided walk-through is Most of the detailed architectural data are not needed until the physical plan- adequate to the situation. But particularly when complex interpersonal rela- ning and design phases of the project have begun. In some cases, the con- tionships are involved, a walk-through may not be sufficient. The fact that textual factors, particularly those related to the human and social people act differently from the norm when they know they are being environment, will play a major role in determining the conceptual approach observed is well known.
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Some special situations warrant the use of unobtru- to a project. In these instances, significant data gathering and research of sive observation, in which the observer is not seen, or at least not noticed the critical contextual factors should become part of the programming — the proverbial fly on the wall. While the instructive literature concerning process. Organize Collected Data First-Phase Program After the interviewing and observation tasks have been completed and the It is not unusual to plan a project in which a facility or operation for observa- basic physical setting information has been acquired, it is time to organize tion does not exist.
In this case, it is advisable to visit and observe facilities the data accumulated to date. Although it is unlikely that all the necessary having similar functions or operations. This organization- 3. Public and private functions and zones should be identified. Special acoustic requirements should be defined. Most importantly, it should identify what is still lacking. What critical information not obtained in the interview process 5. Needs for natural light, air, and view more simply, windows should be will require additional interview time or research?
What conflicts in the given evaluated for each function and area. What subtleties in interrelationships have been 6. Groupings of facilities requiring plumbing connections should be identi- hinted at but not really defined?llitenmadoden.tk
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What technical equipment and processes fied. These and other questions will arise, requiring investigation and research. Research the Unknowns One planning factor that warrants separate analysis but which is too often From planning nuance to hard dimensional information, the kinds of gaps in overlooked, because it involves time rather than space, is scheduling the program data described previously should be sought out at this point in the use of facilities. An analysis of how space is scheduled for use, coupled with process.
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As with architectural parameters, too much detail is unnecessary knowledge of moveable partition construction techniques sliding, folding, and can even be a hindrance; a lot of dimensional and process data are more coiling, etc. The programmer space. Some case study research is often The format in which the data can be placed varies tremendously.
In addition valuable at this stage. Again, complete case study data are unnecessary, but to the collected data, one may also wish to record planning and design some basic factors on spatial organization, corporate or institutional space thoughts and ideas. Data and ideas can be itemized in a conventional prose standards, circulation percentages, and the like for facilities of similar size paragraph style or in bulleted phrases. Categories of data and ideas can be and function can provide a realistic comparison and guidelines for the proj- developed and recorded in related groupings.
Charts or matrixes can be ect at hand. For example, enough common factors exist among law offices, developed to further organize the data and ideas. This issue of format is dis- medical clinics, or day-care centers to make such information useful. Interpret and Diagram the Data Complete Program As they relate to programming, a fine line often exists between analysis and Analyze the Data interpretation.
Despite the similarities in their meaning, value is derived in With all the informational material now at hand, a comprehensive analysis of making a distinction between the terms.
Designers grouping functions. Those interpretations are often among the 1.
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Spatial adjacencies need to be articulated. Working relationships, both inter- and intradepartmental, require identifi- process. The nature of the insights gained can range from a relatively small cation, including traffic flow of personnel, visitors, and materials. From this unique vantage point, the In its final form, the program should be a well-integrated package containing: designer can make invaluable evaluations and recommendations, since no one else is in a position to gain that special perspective. An overview statement 2. A detailed, function-by-function written program describing all project Another form of interpretation that occurs during the programming process is needs and concerns in the translation of the verbal program content into diagrams.
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The use of this diagramming technique is well established and is a part of many design pro- 3. Diagrams that translate the planning relationships into visual terms grams. A wide range of graphic styles is used, and a great deal of verbal terms 4. Most importantly, the designer has a complete and docu- an attempt to realistically create a design solution. Particularly with larger- mented understanding of the problem. It should be noted that it is not scale projects, diagrams are often drawn of both the entire organizational uncommon for the programmer and the designer to be different people; in structure and various segments or departments within the organization.
The program doc- hensive graphic translation of the verbal document. As every designer knows, ument is the ideal tool to communicate both broad conceptual issues and the graphic view can say precisely what words may still leave unclear.
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